Neuro-Anti Inflammatories and Antioxidants

Potent psychoactive and neuroactive chemicals that play key roles in modulating receptor sites, synaptic enzymes, membrane structures, cerebral perfusion, biogenic processes, neuroendocrine regulation and more.

Neuro-Anti Inflammatories - BioPQQ


PQQ is a quinone molecule with a potent anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effect. Studies indicate that PQQ can help prevent cognitive decline.

Scientific Name:
Pyrroloquinoline quinone


  • PQQ reduces oxidants and is continuously recycled into its active form by glutathione[1]
  • Increases the production of mitochondria and improves their efficiency – can act as a growth factor after prolonged intake[2]
  • Decreases the production of some anti-inflammatory molecules such as IL-6[3]
  • Regulates NMDA glutamate receptor activity – reduces excitoxicity and increases neuroprotection[4]
  • Increases NGF synthesis – promotes neuronal growth and survival[5]
  • Neuroprotective role in aged individuals – attenuates neurodegenerative and age-related cognitive decline[6]
  • Can improve sleep and decrease fatigue and stress[7]

[1] Mukai K, et al (2011). Kinetic study of the quenching reaction of singlet oxygen by Pyrroloquinolinequinol (PQQH(2), a reduced form of Pyrroloquinolinequinone) in micellar solution. J Agric Food Chem, 59(5):1705-12. doi: 10.1021/jf104420y
[2] Chowanadisai W, et al (2010). Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression. J Biol Chem, 285(1):142-52. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130
[3] Harris CB, et al (2013). Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. J Nutr Biochem, 24(12):2076-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.07.008
[4] Aizenman E, et al (1992). Interaction of the putative essential nutrient pyrroloquinoline quinone with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor redox modulatory site. J Neurosci, 12(6):2362-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130
[5] Yamaguchi K, et al (1993). Stimulation of nerve growth factor production by pyrroloquinoline quinone and its derivatives in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 57(7):1231-3. doi: 10.1271/bbb.57.1231
[6] Itoh Y, et al (2016). Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ™) on Cognitive Functions. Adv Exp Med Biol, 876:319-25. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3023-4_40
[7] Nakano M, et al (2012). Effects of Oral Supplementation with Pyrroloquinoline Quinone on Stress, Fatigue, and Sleep. Funct Foods Health Dis, 2(8) 307-324

Neuro-Anti Inflammatories - Quercetin


Quercetin is a bioflavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, particularly in apples. Quercetin has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects contributing to a delayed cognitive decline.

Scientific Name:
3, 4, 5, 7-pentahydroxylflavone


  • Adenosine receptor antagonist – although more potent than caffeine, its lower bioavailability leads to a lower magnitude of effects[1]
  • Protects neurons from toxins, reactive oxygen species, and peroxides[2,3]
  • Decreases NO release by increasing heme-oxygenase-1 expression[4]
  • Anti-inflammatory action in the brain – decreases the production of some proinflammatory molecules, namely TNF-α and IL-1 α[5]
  • Can regulate estrogen and androgen levels[6]

[1] Olson CA, et al (2010). Effects of 2 adenosine antagonists, quercetin and caffeine, on vigilance and mood. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 30(5):573-8. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181ee0f79
[2] Sasaki N, et al (2003). Protective effects of flavonoids on the cytotoxicity of linoleic acid hydroperoxide toward rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Chem Biol Interact, 145(1):101-16. doi: 10.1016/S0009-2797(02)00248-X
[3] Shirai M, et al (2006). Effect of a conjugated quercetin metabolite, quercetin 3-glucuronide, on lipid hydroperoxide-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in differentiated PC-12 cells. Free Radic Res, 40(10):1047-53. doi: 10.1080/10715760600794287
[4] Chen JC, et al (2005). Inhibition of iNOS gene expression by quercetin is mediated by the inhibition of IkappaB kinase, nuclear factor-kappa B and STAT1, and depends on heme oxygenase-1 induction in mouse BV-2 microglia. Eur J Pharmacol, 521(1-3):9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.08.005
[5] Bureau G, et al (2005). Resveratrol and quercetin, two natural polyphenols, reduce apoptotic neuronal cell death induced by neuroinflammation. J Neurosci Res, 86(2):403-10. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21503
[6] Rice S, et al (2006). Phytoestrogens and their low dose combinations inhibit mRNA expression and activity of aromatase in human granulosa-luteal cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 101(4-5):216-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.06.021

Neuro-Anti Inflammatories - Curcumin


Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma long), with potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. There are indications that curcumin may improve memory and delay aging.

Scientific Name:


  • Curcumin’s bioavailability is enhanced by piperine[1]
  • Reduces COX-2 production induced by inflammatory cytokines – potent anti-inflammatory effect[2]
  • Anti-aging properties – diminishes oxidative stress, upregulates antioxidant genes and downregulates age-related genes[3]
  • Reduces the production of iNOS, Lysiyl oxidase (LOX), and Phospholipase A2[2,4,5]
  • Can act on TrkB receptors and protects neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity[6]
  • Interacts with dopamine receptors and increases dopamine levels [7]
  • Can increase BDNF levels[6]
  • Can significantly reduce chronic pain[8]

[1] Shoba G, et al (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med, 64(4):353-6. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957450
[2] Camacho-Barquero L, et al (2007). Curcumin, a Curcuma longa constituent, acts on MAPK p38 pathway modulating COX-2 and iNOS expression in chronic experimental colitis. Int Immunopharmacol, 7(3):333-42. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.11.006
[3] Wu A, et al (2006). Dietary curcumin counteracts the outcome of traumatic brain injury on oxidative stress, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Exp Neurol, 197(2):309-17. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.09.004
[4] Huang CS, et al (2013). Long-term ethanol exposure-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion through lysyl oxidase activation are attenuated by combined treatment with pterostilbene and curcumin analogues. J Agric Food Chem, 61(18):4326-35. 10.1021/jf4004175
[5] Dileep KV, et al (2013). Molecular docking studies of curcumin analogs with phospholipase A2. Interdiscip Sci, 3(3):189-97. doi: 10.1007/s12539-011-0090-9
[6] Wang R, et al (2008). Curcumin protects against glutamate excitotoxicity in rat cerebral cortical neurons by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and activating TrkB. Brain Res. 2008 May 19;1210:84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.01.104
[7] Chang XR, et al (2016). Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats. Brain Res, pii: S0006-8993(16)30135-4. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.03.010
[8] Belcaro G, et al (2010). Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev, 15(4):337-44. PMID: 21194249

Neuro-Anti Inflammatories - Algal DHA

Algal DHA

DHA is a structural omega-3 fatty acid with neuroprotective and nootropic effects. DHA has been shown to improve executive function, memory and learning..

Scientific Name:
Docosahexaenoic acid extracted from algae


  • DHA is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in the brain – main structural component of the neuronal cell membrane[1]
  • Modulates the levels of dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the brain and downregulates the HPA axis [1,2]
  • DHA modulates the transport of choline, glycine, and taurine, the function of some potassium channels, and the function of rhodopsin in synaptic vesicles[3]
  • Decreases neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress[4]
  • Decreases the production of proinflammatory molecules and increases the levels of anti-inflammatory molecules and neuroprotectins[5]
  • Slows the rate of telomere shortening – chromosomic marker of aging[5]
  • Increased protection from neurodegeneration and decreased age-related memory loss[5]

[1] Lauritzen L, et al (2001). The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res, 40(1-2):1-94. doi: 10.1016/S0163-7827(00)00017-5
[2] Jiang LH, et al (2012). Pure docosahexaenoic acid can improve depression behaviors and affect HPA axis in mice. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 16(13):1765-73. PMID: 23208960
[3] Spector AA (1999). Essentiality of fatty acids. Lipids, 34 Suppl:S1-3. doi: 10.1007/BF02562220
[4] North JA, et al (1994). Cell fatty acid composition affects free radical formation during lipid peroxidation. Am J Physiol, 267(1 Pt 1):C177-88. PMID: 8048478
[5] Bazan NG, et al (2011). Docosahexaenoic acid signalolipidomics in nutrition: significance in aging, neuroinflammation, macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Annu Rev Nutr, 31:321-51. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104635

Neuro-Anti Inflammatories - Green Tea Extract

Green Tea Extract

Green tea extract is rich in polyphenols with neuroprotective and nootropic effects. Green tea extract can enhance memory and learning abilities and delay aging.

Scientific Name:
EGCG – Epigallocatechin-3-gallate from Camellia Sinensis


  • Polyphenols in green tea include catechins, theaflavins, tannins, and flavonoids, all with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties – anti-aging effect[1]
  • Synergistic with quercetin – increased bioavailability of catechins[2]
  • Synergistic with L-Theanine in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and enhancing cognitive effects[3]
  • The catechin EGCG is the most abundant and potent polyphenol in green tea[4]
  • EGCG can improve cognitive function by increasing the production of neural progenitor cells[5]
  • Increases blood flow[6]
  • May reduce anxiety and fatigue[7,8]

[1] Khan N & Mukhtar H (2013). Tea and health: studies in humans. Curr Pharm Des, 19(34):6141-7. doi: 10.2174/1381612811319340008
[2] Wang P, et al (2012). Quercetin increased bioavailability and decreased methylation of green tea polyphenols in vitro and in vivo. Food Funct, 3(6):635-42. doi: 10.1039/c2fo10254d
[3] Kim TI, et al (2008). Improvement of Memory Impairment by the Combination of Green Tea Extract and L-Theanine through Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mice (link)
[4] Bhagwat S, et al (2011). USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, Release 3. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. (link)
[5] Wang Y, et al (2012). Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) promotes neural progenitor cell proliferation and sonic hedgehog pathway activation during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Mol Nutr Food Res, 56(8):1292-303. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200035
[6] Ras RT, et al (2011). Tea consumption enhances endothelial-dependent vasodilation; a meta-analysis. PLoS One, 6(3):e16974. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016974
[7] Vignes M, et al (2006). Anxiolytic properties of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Brain Res, 1110(1):102-15. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.06.062
[8] Sachdeva AK, et al (2010). Protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate in murine water-immersion stress model of chronic fatigue syndrome. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 106(6):490-6. doi 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2009.00525.x

Neuro-Anti Inflammatories - Bioperine


Piperine is an alkaloid found in black pepper (Piper nigrum) with anti-inflammatory and nootropic effects. Piperine can boost memory and focus and improve executive function.

Scientific Name:
Pentadienoyl-2-piperidine from Piper nigrum


  • Increases the absorption and bioavailability of a number of nutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin B6 and EGCG[1]
  • Highly synergistic with curcumin – enhances its bioavailability and its anti-inflammatory effects[2]
  • Increases serotonin and dopamine levels [3]
  • Analgesic properties – activates TRPV1 ion channels on nociceptive (pain-sensing) neurons[4]
  • Increases motivation, attention and reasoning skills – productivity enhancer[5]

[1] Lambert JD, et al (2004). Piperine enhances the bioavailability of the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice. J Nutr, 134(8):1948-52. PMID: 15284381
[2] Shoba G, et al (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med, 64(4):353-6. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957450
[3] Li S, et al (2007). Antidepressant-like effects of piperine and its derivative, antiepilepsirine. J Asian Nat Prod Res, 9(3-5):421-30. PMID: 17701559
[4] McNamara FN, et al (2005). Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). Br J Pharmacol, 144(6):781-90. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706040
[5] Wattanathorn J, et al (2008). Piperine, the potential functional food for mood and cognitive disorders. Food Chem Toxicol, 46(9):3106-10. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.06.014