Key limiting factor vitamins in specific activated forms required for major neuroregulatory and neurodevelopmental processes.

Neuro-Vitamins - Vit B1 as Benfotiamine

Vit B1 as Benfotiamine

Benfotiamine is a synthetic S-acyl derivative of vitamin B1 (thiamine) with neuroprotective effects. By increasing vitamin B1 levels, benfotiamine can increase energy, mood and alertness.

Scientific Name:
S-Benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate


  • After ingestion, benfotiamine is converted into vitamin B1 (thiamine)[1]
  • This synthetic S-acyl derivative of thiamine has a 5-fold higher bioavailability[1]
  • Thiamine increases the production of ATP by enhancing carbohydrate metabolism[2]
  • Thiamine increases mood, energy, and alertness[2]
  • Useful for the treatment of neuropathies and chronic pain[3]
  • Can increase the activity of transketolase – reduces vascular damage associated with neuropathy and retinopathy[4]
  • Antioxidant action via NADPH oxidase[5]
  • Decreases the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) – substances that contribute to neurodegeneration[6]

[1] Loew D (1996). Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 34(2):47-50. PMID: 8929745
[2] Lonsdale D (2006). A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 3(1):49-59. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nek009
[3] Sánchez-Ramírez GM, et al (2006). Benfotiamine relieves inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats. Eur J Pharmacol, 530(1-2):48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.11.016
[4] Hammes HP, et al (2003). Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med, 9(3):294-9. doi: 10.1038/nm834
[5] Fraser DA, et al (2012). Benfotiamine increases glucose oxidation and downregulates NADPH oxidase 4 expression in cultured human myotubes exposed to both normal and high glucose concentrations. Genes Nutr, 7(3):459-69. doi 10.1007/s12263-011-0252-8
[6] Alkhalaf A, et al (2012). Effect of benfotiamine on advanced glycation endproducts and markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. PLoS One, 7(7):e40427. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040427

Neuro-Vitamins - Vit B3 as Niacinamide

Vit B3 as Niacinamide

Nicotinamide is the amide form of vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid / niacin) that is naturally synthesized in the body with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Experimental evidence indicates that nicotinamide can decrease age-associated cognitive impairment.

Scientific Name:


  • Nicotinamide is part of two essential coenzymes for energy production and DNA repair – nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP)[1]
  • Anti-inflammatory activity[2]
  • Can prevent the death of cortical neurons exposed to oxidative agents[3]
  • Can have anxiolytic effects[4]
  • Inhibits the activity of sirtuins – proteins that play important roles in aging, cell death and inflammation – can decrease neurodegenerative and age-associated memory impairment[5]

[1] Belenky P, et al (2007). NAD+ metabolism in health and disease. Trends Biochem Sci, 32(1):12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2006.11.006
[2] Niren NM (2006). Pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions: a review. Cutis, 77(1 Suppl):11-6. PMID: 16871774
[3] Hoane MR, et al (2006). Nicotinamide reduces acute cortical neuronal death and edema in the traumatically injured brain. Neurosci Lett, 408(1):35-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2006.07.011
[4] Möhler H et al (1979). Nicotinamide is a brain constituent with benzodiazepine-like actions. Nature, 278(5704):563-5. doi: 10.1038/278563a0
[5] Denu JM (2005). Vitamin B3 and sirtuin function. Trends Biochem Sci, 30(9):479-83. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2005.07.004

Neuro-Vitamins - Vit B5 as Calcium Pantothenate

Vit B5 as Calcium Pantothenate

Calcium Pantothenate is a synthetic form and a source of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) with nootropic actions. Vitamin B5 can improve concentration and benefit memory and learning.

Scientific Name:
Calcium 3-[(2R)-2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanamido]propanoate


  • Vitamin B5 is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), having a key role in energy metabolism[1]
  • Vitamin B5 is necessary for the synthesis of acetylcholine – increases neuroplasticity, and improves concentration and comprehension and reduces brain fog[1,2]
  • Synergistic with cholinergic compounds[1]

[1] Tahiliani AG, Beinlich CJ (1991). Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Vitam Horm, 46:165-228. doi: 10.1016/S0083-6729(08)60684-6
[2] Gold PE (2003). Acetylcholine: cognitive and brain functions. Neurobiol Learn Mem, 80(3):177. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2003.07.002

Neuro-Vitamins - Vit B6 as Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate

Vit B6 as Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate

P-5-P is the most active form of vitamin B6, having significant nootropic effects. P-5-P plays an essential part in mood, memory formation, and executive functions.

Scientific Name:
(4-formyl-5-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-3-yl)methyl phosphate


  • Essential for cellular energy metabolism[1]
  • Increases mental and physical energy, improves neuronal communication[2]
  • Prevents age-associated neuronal damage[3]
  • Involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and melatonin[4,5]
  • Important role in executive functions, memory formation, mood regulation, focus, motivation, and sleep regulation[5,6]

[1] Clayton PT (2006). B6-responsive disorders: a model of vitamin dependency. J Inherit Metab Dis, 29(2-3):317-26. doi: 10.1007/s10545-005-0243-2
[2] Ebadi M, et al (1990). Hippocampal zinc thionein and pyridoxal phosphate modulate synaptic functions. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 585:189-201. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb28053.x
[3] Campanini B, et al (2013). Serine racemase: a key player in neuron activity and in neuropathologies. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed), 18:1112-28. doi: 10.2741/4167
[4] Yoshimura T, Goto M (2008). D-amino acids in the brain: structure and function of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent amino acid racemases. FEBS J, 275(14):3527-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06516.x
[5] Deijen JB et al (1992). Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 109(4):489-96. doi: 10.1007/BF02247729
[6] Ebadi M (1981). Regulation and function of pyridoxal phosphate in CNS. Neurochem Int ;3(3-4):181-205. doi: 10.1016/0197-0186(81)90001-2

Neuro-Vitamins - Vit B12 as Methylcobalamin

Vit B12 as Methylcobalamin

Methylcobalamin is a methylated and active form of vitamin b12 (cobalamin) with strong neuroprotective and anti-aging effects. Methylcobalamin’s effects include improved memory and executive function, as well as enhanced focus.

Scientific Name:


  • Acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymes and provides functional support for neurons [1]

  • Improves neuronal regenerative capacity and reduces neurotoxicity [2]

  • Can decrease neuropathy and neuropathic pain [3]

  • Removes excessive homocysteine in the brain – main cause of vascular degeneration [1]

  • Upregulates S-adenosylmethionine production [4]

  • Improves memory, concentration, executive function, and motor control [5]

  • Prevents age-associated cognitive decline [6]

  • Anxiolytic effect [7]


[1] O’Leary F, Samman S (2010). Vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutrients, 2(3):299-316. doi: 10.3390/nu2030299
[2] Kennedy DO (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy–A Review. Nutrients, 8(2):68. doi: 10.3390/nu8020068
[3] Zhang M, et al (2013). Methylcobalamin: a potential vitamin of pain killer. Neural Plast, 2013:424651. doi: 10.1155/2013/424651
[4] Tiemeier H, et al (2002). Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Psychiatry, 159(12):2099-101. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.12.2099
[5] Rathod R, et al (2016). Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function. J Biomed Sci, 23:17. doi: 10.1186/s12929-016-0241-8
[6] Smith AD, Refsum H (2009). Vitamin B-12 and cognition in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr, 89(2):707S-11S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26947D
[7] Long SJ, Benton D (2013). Effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on stress, mild psychiatric symptoms, and mood in nonclinical samples: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med, 75(2):144-53. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31827d5fbd

Neuro-Vitamins - Vit C as Ascorbic Acid

Vit C as Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring essential vitamin with strong neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. Ascorbic acid is able to decrease fatigue and improve mood.

Scientific Name:

  • Crosses the blood brain barrier and accumulates most significantly in the hippocampus cerebellum and in the frontal and parietal cortices[1]
  • Is a cofactor for dopamine-β-hydroxylase – optimizes the production of dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline[2]
  • Is a cofactor in the production of the hormones oxytocin, vasopressin and α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone[3]
  • NMDA glutamate receptor inhibition – neuroprotection against excitotoxicity[4]
  • Potent antioxidant activity by binding free radicals and increasing antioxidant enzymes’ production[5]
  • Increases blood flow by reducing NO oxidation[6]
  • Synergistic with potassium channel blockers[7]

[1] Spector R (1977). Vitamin homeostasis in the central nervous system. N Engl J Med, 296(24):1393-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM197706162962409
[2] Kuo CH, et al (1979). Effect of ascorbic acid on release of acetylcholine from synaptic vesicles prepared from different species of animals and release of noradrenaline from synaptic vesicles of rat brain. Life Sci, 24(10):911-5. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(79)90341-2
[3] Wilson LG (1975). The clinical definition of scurvy and the discovery of vitamin C. J Hist Med Allied Sci, 30(1):40-60. doi: 10.1093/jhmas/XXX.1.40
[4] Majewska MD, Bell JA (1990). Ascorbic acid protects neurons from injury induced by glutamate and NMDA. Neuroreport, 1(3-4):194-6. PMID: 1983355
[5] Figueroa-Méndez R, Rivas-Arancibia S (2015). Vitamin C in Health and Disease: Its Role in the Metabolism of Cells and Redox State in the Brain. Front Physiol, 6:397. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00397
[6] Heller R, et al (2001). L-ascorbic acid potentiates endothelial nitric oxide synthesis via a chemical stabilization of tetrahydrobiopterin. J Biol Chem, 276(1):40-7. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M004392200
[7] Moretti M, et al (2012). Ascorbic acid treatment, similarly to fluoxetine, reverses depressive-like behavior and brain oxidative damage induced by chronic unpredictable stress. 46(3):331-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.11.009

Neuro-Vitamins - Vit D3 as Microencapsulated Cholecalciferol

Vit D3 as Microencapsulated Cholecalciferol

Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D (vitamin D3) with antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Research indicates that it may contribute to delaying neurodegenerative and age-associated cognitive decline.

Scientific Name:


  • Cholecalciferol is an inactive form that is converted by the liver and kidneys to the active form calcitriol[1]
  • The effects of calcitriol are mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR)[1]
  • VDR is found in the substantia nigra, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and hippocampus[2]
  • Regulates NGF, and GDNF synthesis – neuronal survival and growth[3]
  • Upregulation of NT-3 – enhanced neuronal communication and synaptic plasticity[3]
  • Antioxidant properties – inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increases glutathione.[4,5]
  • Facilitates calcium absorption[6]

[1] Christakos S, et al (2016). Vitamin D: Metabolism, Molecular Mechanism of Action, and Pleiotropic Effects. Physiol Rev, 96(1):365-408. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00014.2015
[2] Harms LR, et al (2011). Vitamin D and the brain. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 25(4):657-69. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009
[3] Shirazi HA, et al (2015). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances neural stem cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte differentiation. Exp Mol Pathol, 98(2):240-5. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2015.02.004
[4] d’Uscio LV, et al (2003). Long-term vitamin C treatment increases vascular tetrahydrobiopterin levels and nitric oxide synthase activity. Circ Res, 92(1):88-95. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000049166.33035.62
[5] Alvarez JA, et al (2014). Vitamin D status is independently associated with plasma glutathione and cysteine thiol/disulphide redox status in adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 81(3):458-66. doi: 10.1111/cen.12449
[6] Christakos S, et al (2011). Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 347(1-2):25-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.038